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Bibliometrics is derived from scientometric research and it is a set of mathematical and statistical methods used to analyze scientific writing.

The definition of bibliometrics was first formulated as early as 1969 by Alan Pritchard as "the application of mathematical and statistical methods to books and other media of communication."

Bibliometric indicators include measures such as the number of citations, Hirsch Index, Impact Factor, total Impact Factor, CiteScore.

A citation is a reference to another publication in the text of a scientific work. The given number of citations may refer to a single publication, the entire output of the author, a journal or the publication output of a scientific unit, e.g. a faculty, university or department.

Currently, the most important databases including citations are:

Web of Science -  instructions for creating citation reports and Hirsch index.

Hirsch index (h-index, index h)

The Hirsch Index measures scientific achievements taking into account the number of publications and the number of citations. The h-index is the number of scientific publications that have received a number of citations equal to or greater than h. For example, if the author's publications include 10 works, each of which has been cited at least 10 times, then the author's h-index = 10. Therefore, it is created by ranking publications by the number of citations and selecting the item for which the number of citations is greater than or equal to the ordinal number.

You can check the Hirsch index in the databases:

Impact Factor

This is an index calculated from Web of Science data for journals registered in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) database. The Impact Factor for a given year is the ratio of the number of citations received by a journal in that year for articles published in the previous two years to the number of such articles.

For example, the IF for 2022 was calculated according to the formula:

D = B/C 

A - all citations that the journal received in 2022.

B - citations obtained in 2022 for articles that were published in the journal in 2020 and 2021 (this is a subset of A).

C - the number of articles published in the journal in 2020 and 2021.

D - Impact Factor of the journal for 2022.

IF values for journals are published in the Journal Citation Reports database in June/July each year.

IF is not a standardized indicator, so it should be used to compare journals within a discipline. It helps to assess the importance of a journal in comparison with others in the same field.

Read more about Impact Factor on the publisher's website.

Master Journal List is a list of journals registered in databases on the Web of Science platform.

The total Impact Factor is the sum of the IF values of the journals in which the author has published scientific articles. It is calculated taking into account the articles of a given author published in journals that have an IF factor according to the following formula:

TIF = Ax(n) * IFx(n) + Ay(n) * IFy(n) + Ay(m) * IFy(m) + ....

TIF - TotalImpact Factor of the author

n, m - the year of publication of the author's article / the year for which the IF of the journal was calculated

Ax - the number of articles by the author published in journal x in a given year

Ay - number of articles of the author published in journal y in a given year

IFx - IF of journal x calculated for a given year

IFy - IF of journal y calculated for a given year.

We take into account the IF consistent with the year of publication.


A citation index calculated using data from the Scopus database. When calculating the CiteScore, citations and publications from a 4-year period are taken into account. The CiteScore for a given year is calculated by dividing the number of citations of publications from the last four years (including the year for which it is calculated) by the number of those publications. The CiteScore is not a normalized index, so it should only be used to compare journals within a discipline.

Ranking lists of scientists according to Clarivate Analytics and Elsevier

Every year, Clarivate Analytics and Elsevier publish ranking lists of scientists based on citations from Web of Science and Scopus:

Highly Cited Researchers 2022

Highly Cited Researchers 2021

Updated science-wide author databases of standardized citation indicators